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Nurses’ Perception and Bedside Observation Concerning Enteral Feeding at Neonatal Intensive Care Unit عطيات محمد حسن سيد
Abstract Background: Enteral feeding (EF) is the preferred method of feeding for high-risk neonates. So, major attention should be directed to nurses' perception and bedside observation concerning EF. Aim: This study aimed to determine nurses’ perception and bedside observation concerning EF at NICU. Design: Descriptive research design was utilized. Setting: This study was carried out at NICU in Assiut University Children Hospital. Subjects: A convenience sampling of 60 nurses who had clinical experience at least three months in NICU was included. Tools: Two tools were used to collect necessary data which included; personal characteristics questionnaire for nurses (tool 1) and enteral feeding questionnaire (tool 2). Results: 48.33% of the studied nurses had high level of perception and more than half (58.33%) of them had high level of practice concerning enteral feeding, 100 % of the studied nurses who aged 35 years and more and the majority of them who had 10 years and more of experiences had high level of perception and practice (85.2 and 96% respectively). Conclusion: About half of the studied nurses had high level of perception and more than half of them had high level of practice concerning enteral feeding. More experienced, attendance training programs and aged nurses had high level of enteral feeding perception and practice. Recommendations: Provision of continuing educational programs on regular basis is suggested in order to refresh and updated nurses' perception and practice. ...
Frequency and Intensity of Conflict between Adolescents and their Parents in Assiut Governorate عطيات محمد حسن سيد
Introduction Nowadays adolescents and their parents as a family can face many challenges in daily life communication. These challenges can deliver tension, disagreements or quarrels between adolescent's autonomy and parents' desires which need to be managed and resolved (Shearman & Dumlao, 2008). “Adolescence” is a critical period of life that includes physiological and psychological changes which start between the beginning of puberty and establishment of social independence (Steinberg, 2014). Adolescence can be a very difficult period; the changes that occur during this period are often confusing for both adolescents and their parents. One goal of every adolescent is to be accepted as an autonomous adult. Adolescent’s desire for independence and peer acceptance often contributes to the tendency to conform to peer group influences and to challenge of parental authorities (Shehata & Ramadan, 2010). Conflict is defined as any disagreement, difference, and argument about an issue that a rise in family life. Conflict is a complex and multifaceted construct as it includes any differences of opinions, whether it is negative or positive between parents (Cummings & Davies, 2011 & Kouros, 2010). These differences range from minor daily stresses and disagreements to severe verbal, emotional, and physical arguments (Esfandyari et al., 2011). In spite of this fact about conflict, conflict can be either destructive as the adolescent may witness their parents’ displays of anger and hostility or constructive conflict which depicts good role modeling and the use of problem-solving strategies and affection (Pinheiro, 2006). Disagreements are not a central characteristic of...
Parent-Adolescents Conflicts and its Relation with their School Achievement and Self-esteem عطيات محمد حسن سيد
Introduction Adolescence is a stage characterized by unique changes in physical growth and cognitive, emotional, social and self-definitional development. Also, it is frequently sensed as a challenging period of life for the adolescent and their family (Steinberg & Silk, 2002). Conflict is defined as any disagreement, difference and argument about an issue that rises in family life. However, the Parent-adolescent conflict is complex and multifaceted construct as it includes any differences of opinions, whether it is negative or positive between parents (Kouros et al., 2010). It is defined as a dyadic, interpersonal situation including obvious behavioral disapproval as disputes, disagreements and squabbles (Melching Jessica, 2011). Therefore communication and conflict between adolescent and their parents often encompass renegotiating rules, roles and relationships regarding everyday topics as activities, friends, responsibilities and school (Shearman & Dumlao 2008). Adolescents' intensifying struggling about autonomy can be a factor that increases parent–adolescent disagreement through early adolescence and heighten a negative impact of conflicts during middle adolescence. The main cause of conflicts between the parents and adolescents is the discrepancy between their expectations as regard proper behavior and the suitable time of turns in authority, independence, and duties (Pinquart & Silbereisen, 2002 & Branje et al., 2009). Some conflicts with parents can be considered a normal part of family relations throughout adolescence and it has a well-defined function in the adolescent development of autonomy and individuation (Steinberg, 2001). While, when a lot of and excessive frequent conflicts may be a predisposing factor for adolescent psychosocial adjustment...
Impact of Tactile Stimulation on Neurobehavioral Development of Premature Infants in Assiut City عطيات محمد حسن سيد
1. Introduction It has been argued that premature infants in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) are subject to a highly continuous stressful environment, high-intensity noise, bright light and a lack of the tactile stimulation that they would otherwise experience in the womb or in general mothering care (Vickers, et al., 2004). Tactile stimulation is considered a safe practice and there are no significant harmful effects if performed appropriately. It stimulates the production of certain ‘feel good’ hormones including endorphins and oxytocin. Endorphins released with tactile stimulation are natural source of pain relief for the body (Kulkarni, et al., 2010). Tactile stimulation improves neurodevelopment of premature infants. Early stimulation given to neonates will change the growth of the brain cells, improve adaptive behavior, and finally cause the achievement of the optimal development of their age (Aliabadi & Askary, 2013). Growth hormone IGF-1 is an important medium in brain activity and plays a leading role in brain function. It can pass through the blood-brain-barrier and promote brain development (Nishijima, et al., 2010, Hamza, et al., 2011, Lee, et al., 2011 and Wen, et al., 2012). The regular application of stimulation, starting as early as 24-48 hours, has a great positive impact on the development of the brain and its function. This sensory stimulation helps premature infants adapt quicker to the new environment and allows them to catch up with full-term infants (Mendes & Procianoy, 2008, Guzzetta, et al., 2009, McGrath, 2009, Massaro, et al., 2009 and Ho, et al., 2010). Premature...
Impact of Tactile Stimulation on Anthropometric Measurements of Premature Infants in Assiut City عطيات محمد حسن سيد
Introduction Prematurity is a major health problem because it is a leading cause of infant mortality (Fakher et al., 2005). The incidence of prematurity in the year 2010 was 42.8 % of the total admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Assiut University Hospital (Unpublished Statistical Record, Assuit university Children Hospital, 2010). Premature infants experience a range of morbidity related to the immaturity of their organ systems and to concurrent disease states. There is concern that an unfavorable environment in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) may compound this morbidity (Symington & Pinelli, 2006). The premature infants face many challenges during their first months of life. They are supposed to be in a well protected womb and instead they are introduced to a hostile environment while their bodies are not ready for. The life in nursery intensive care unit is based on an environment of sensory bombardment, light, invasive procedures and constant noise which upsets infants' sleep-awake cycles. In addition, premature infants are often isolated in incubators and deprived of much of the mechanosensory stimulation they would otherwise receive (Rose, et al., 2005 and Rai & Rankin, 2007). They receive an inappropriate pattern of stimulation as nonreciprocal, painful and multiple stimuli (Als, et al., 2004 and Gardner, et al, 2011). Therefore, modification of the environment could minimize the iatrogenic effects, developmental care interventions; reduce neurodevelopment delay, poor weight gain, length of hospital stay, length of mechanical ventilation, physiological stress and other clinically relevant adverse outcomes. Once such modification...
Relation between Students' Perception of Teaching Styles and Students' Academic Engagement in South Valley and Assiut Universities عطيات محمد حسن سيد
Introduction Student academic excellence is the main agenda of any educational institutions and colleges. It requires action and cooperation from all parties for achieving. The environment of learning must be attractive, conducive and playfulness. This is because the student's capability and preparedness to learn firstly depending on availability of teacher's teaching style does not only concerning to the students themselves. (Abdull et al., 2014). Also, Casuso et al., (2013) illustrated that the encouraging student engagement consider an fundamental role of an educationalinstitutions, if this factor is involved in student enhancing the success point and followed. Students' academic engagement: "It is defined as the students' psychological investment in and the effort directed toward learning, understanding and mastering knowledge, skills, or crafts that academic work intends to promote" (Shaari et al., 2014). Also, it is a complex term that emphasizes students' various patterns in motivation, mental process and behavior. It is a measure or signal that joint theoretical or academic recognition (which suggest to gain along with teachers, meet or find a concern in the event regarding behaviors) and academic participation (which restrain the learner's effort, including hours used up or consumed on homework assignment, encounter deadlines, not skipping classes, and so on) (Al-Hendawi, 2012). Engagement is an important or an eminent academic orientation that accepts pig and expanded attention of learners and researchers. Engagement as a passage to better unfriendliness, to turn away learner dullness and dissatisfaction, to increase students‟ encouragement, push, and involvement in college regarding performance, to enhance...
Undergraduate nursing students’ knowledge and attitude regarding pain management of children in Upper Egypt عطيات محمد حسن سيد
1. INTRODUCTION Pain is a major source of distress for children and their families as well as health care providers. Children may experience pain as a result of surgery, injuries, acute and chronic illnesses, and medical or surgical procedures. It can lead to serious physical and emotional consequences such as increased oxygen consumption and alterations in blood glucose metabolism. In addition, the experience of untreated pain early in life may lead to long term physiologic, psychological and behavioral consequences for the child.[1, 2] According to Mathews (2011), forty percent of children complain of acute pain while chronic pain affects at least 15%-20%.[3] One of the important responsibilities of health care personnel is to relieve pain as possible. It is unethical to let the child suffer from pain without any trials to relieve pain or provide high-quality treatment.[4] This comes in the same line with the American Pain Society (1995)[5] which labeled the pain as “the fifth vital sign” to emphasize the importance of as-The goal is to encourage health care professionals to assess pain every time and to institute measures to manage it.[6] A research conducted by Chin Tracy (2007)[7] to assess nursing students’ knowledge and attitudes regarding pediatric pain at California State University, concluded that many complex and interrelated factors that have participated to the undertreatment of pediatric pain, including professionals’ misconceptions about pain and its management; limited clinical information regarding pain control and analgesic usage; persistent myths discounting a child’s ability to experience pain; the complexities of...
Impact of an Educational Program for Mothers about Preventing Oral Medications Misuse for Children Under Five Years عطيات محمد حسن سيد
1. Introduction Medication errors are important worldwide affairs that can cause appreciable morbidity and mortality also, severe medical consequences for children [1,2]. Medication administration errors (MAEs) and misuse may be the result of faulty maternal practices i.e. when any of the medications administration rights gets wrong. Giving the child wrong dose in the form of overdose, underdose and missed a dose or giving the wrong drug is the possible most serious errors [3]. Also, "self-medication" or "over-the-counter (OTC)" are other forms of medication administration errors. It refers to medications that are taken by the patient but are not prescribed by the physician [4]. In Egypt a study done with [5] showed that; over-the-counter (OTC) drugs in the form of cold medications and cough suppressants were found to be the cause of poisoning in 19.1% of poisoned children. Also, [6] study "the risk factors of acute poisoning among children at a poisoning unit of a university hospital in Egypt" indicated that analgesics and cough drugs were responsible for 2.7% and 1.4% of acute poisoning in children. Furthermore, in Jordan a study by [7] who found that total of 57% of parents treated children with incorrect doses of antipyretic drugs. The administration of oral medications to children is frequently an aspect of nursing care that causes a concern for child, family, and nurse. Therefore, the mother's knowledge about child care influences the nature and quality of care that is given to the child especially medications and drug use [4]. Administering drugs...
Prevalence and Risk Factors of Congenital Anomalies among Neonates in Assiut University Children Hospital عطيات محمد حسن سيد
Introduction:

World Health Organization (2016) [1] estimated that about 303000 of neonates died every year worldwide during the first month of life because of congenital anomalies. "Congenital anomalies (CAs) can be defined as structural or functional abnormalities", which are present at birth or even later in life [2].  Also, it may be seen as a physical, metabolic, or anatomic deviation from the normal pattern of development [3].

Previous studies by Rodica et al. (2009) [4] and Taboo (2012) [5] indicated that there is a higher association between congenital anomalies and these risk factors as; infections, chemical substances, radiation exposure, medications use, metabolic disorders, multiple births, prematurity, stress exposure, and occupational exposure. Moreover, degree of consanguinity of parents considered a significant factor that increases the risk of congenital anomalies [6]. Besides, vitamin deficiency as folic acid and vit-B1 in the pre-conceptual time is proved as a risk factor for congenital malformations.  Also, the hazard of malformations is growing in pregnancy of old age woman [5].

Sreeram et al. (2010) [7] mentioned that abnormal intrauterine environment can cause impaired fetal development. And Pal  et al. (2015) [8] adding that vit-A derivatives and metabolic disease of the mother like diabetes mellitus are other factors which affect the fetus intrauterine life and can cause anomalies.  

The nurse plays an important role in preventive methods for 70% of CAs in the country. The nurse can use the primary prevention to prevent the congenital anomalies from occurring.  It was applied in the pre...

Consequences of Internet Addiction on Dietary Behavior of Adolescents in Assiut City عطيات محمد حسن سيد
Introduction Adolescence is a period of numerous changes for young adults for example there is a rapid rate of physical growth. Adolescents are influenced by outside factors such as; parents, peers, culture, religion, school, community, world events and modern technology (Eccles, 2011) One of the greatest influential types of modern technology which has big effect on daily life of adolescents is the internet. In recent years the internet has assumed an important place in our lives. The internet has become more accessible in homes, schools, colleges, libraries and internet cafes (United Nations, 2011). According to Internet world status; Egypt Internet Usage & Tele-communications Report, (2012) the total number of worldwide internet users was estimated as 29 million users in 2012, increased to about 54.6 % of the population in 2015 (Statistics of Internet Users Worldwide in Millions, 2015). While reaching to 34.800 million users in 2017 in Egypt (Internet Users Statistics for Africa, 2017) and jumped to be 49.231 million users in 2018 in Egypt (Internet Users Statistics for Africa in millions, 2018). Internet usage is highly prevalent among adolescent children (Malak et al., 2017 & Kawabe et al., 2016). It is reported that the age group that most frequently uses the internet is 14–24 years (Odac & Kalkan, 2010) Also, a study by Kim et al., (2010) declared that adolescents are the frequently exposed people for Internet Addiction (IA). As they prefer to communicate with others on social networking sites rather than the actual contact in the real...
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