Energy Drinks Consumption among University Female students: Prevalence, Side effects and Awareness....
Oral Presentation in " 2nd Undergraduate Research Forum (URF) on February 15-16, 2016. Prince Sultan University, Riyadh....
The purpose of this study was to characterize the different mechanisms of carbapenem resistance
among blood isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Meropenem resistant isolates
were included. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, phenotypic and genotypic detection of
carbapenemase production were performed. Genetic relatedness of blaNDM-1 producers was determined
by pulsed-filed gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing. The relatedness of blaNDM-1 carrying plasmids was
studied by plasmid restriction fragment length polymorphisms (pRFLP) and polymerase chain reaction
(PCR) based replicon typing (PBRT). For the carbapenem gene negative isolates, other possible
mechanism of carbapenem resistance such as role of outer membrane porin loss with ESBL or AmpC
production, and efflux pumps were analyzed. Among the 162 isolates studied, 1 (0.6%) was found to be
blaKPC-3 producer and 42.5% were blaNDM-1 producers. All the isolates were multidrug resistant; two
isolates carried both blaNDM-1 and blaVIM-2. PFGE determined blaNDM-1 producers were non-related. The
plasmids harbouring blaNDM-1belonged to two major incompatibility plasmid types, IncL/M and IncA/C.
IncL/M is a novel plasmid group reported firstly from this region. A clonal outbreak of blaIMP-1 K.
pneumoniae was identified during this study. This is the first report on the emergence of K.
pneumoniae producing blaIMP-1 from South India and blaKPC-3 from India. The study suggest including
ertapenem in the routine susceptibility screening to find the true rate of KPC producers in Indian
hospitals. Colistin and tigecycline are two drugs that have activity but both have developed resistance.
Selection of an appropriate initial antibiotic regimen for empiric therapy, rotation of different antibiotic
The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanisms of third generation cephalosporins
resistance among blood isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. A total of 549
isolates, Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=369) and Escherichia coli (n=180) were included. Antibiotic
susceptibility pattern, phenotypic and genotypic detection of ESBL and AmpC production were
carried out. The genetic environment surrounding blaCTX-M gene was assessed for insertion
sequences. The plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) and integron carriage rate of
ESBL producers were studied. The clonality was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.
Also, the plasmids bearing the ESBL, AmpC genes were studied by incompatibility typing and
conjugation assay. By phenotypic tests, K. pneumoniae (79.8%) and E. coli (74.1%) were ESBL
producers. Similarly, K. pneumoniae (70.5%) and E. coli (76.8%) were AmpC producers. By PCR,
K. pneumoniae (68%) and E. coli (62%) carried ESBL genes. blaCTX-M- 15 was the prevalent type (98.1%). The linkage of ISEcp1 with blaCTX-M-15 gene was found in 92.5% of the blaCTX-M-15 genes.
blaCMY-2 was present in 57% isolates. PFGE showed no clonal relatedness however; replicon typing
This was a prospective observational study carried out in a large teaching hospital in
South India over a period of 24 months (February 2008- January 2010). Consecutive
patients admitted in various wards and intensive care units (ICUs), who had blood
stream infections caused by Extended Spectrum -Lactamase (ESBL) producing
Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli were included. Antimicrobial
susceptibility pattern of the ESBL producing isolates were recorded. Each patient was
followed up after diagnosis of bacteremia to assess the clinical outcome. The patient s
details were obtained from their case records. Patient s demographic data were
recorded. An inappropriate therapy defined as, if the patient was prescribed a third
generation cephalosporins (3GCs) for an infection with ESBL producing K.
pneumoniae or E. coli. An appropriate therapy was defined as use of non-3GCs for an
infection with ESBL producing K. pneumoniae or E. coli, to which the bacterial isolate
was susceptible in-vitro. The effectiveness of 3GCs administration was monitored
thrice a week. One hundred and sixty two in-patients were followed up during the study
period. Of the 162 patients, 114 (70.3%) had blood culture positive for ESBL
producing K. pneumoniae. Eighty three (51.2%) patients were in intensive care units,
and 79 (48.7%) in other wards. Among the 162 patients infected with ESBL producing
bacteria, 98 (60.4%) received appropriate empirical therapy, and 64 (39.5%) received
inappropriate therapy. Of the 98 patients in the appropriate antimicrobial prescribed
group, early improvement was seen in 64 (65.3%), early failure in 28 (28.5%) patients.
Similarly, among the...